Posted on

How to Teach Phonograms: Part 3

Teaching phonics with mnemonics

Flash cards

How to Teach Phonograms: Part 3

This is the third and final installment of, “How to Teach the Phonograms.”.  How is it going with your student? If you have any questions, sign in on the blog site and ask. Better yet; we would love to see a comment from you.  If you are popping in for the first time, reading Parts 1 and 2 will be very helpful.

A Few Pointers

  1. Teaching the alphabet phonograms first (see parts 1 and 2) help lay the foundation in letter formation, called manuscript or printing, as well as with reading and spelling those sounds. The rest of the phonograms are referred to as multi-letter phonograms or sounds.
  2. YesPhonics and all Orton-Spalding methods of reading take the clutter out of learning the English language. Whenever the alphabet sounds combine to make new sounds they are taught as multi-letter phonograms. But if the sounds remain the same when they are joined with others, they are not taught again.  Some examples will make this clearer.
  3. Examples: When the /o/ and /u/ come together as /ou/, the /ou/ makes 4 other sounds. We always underline multi-letter phonograms while building the word list. But when letters join together that do not make new sounds, such as, the /s/ and the /t/ to make /st/, we do not reteach the /st/ as a separate sound.  Students already know how to say the /s/ and how to say the /t/.  It is not necessary to teach them again, thus making the teaching of the English language much less chaotic than how it is often presented.
  4. Remember the Checklist:
  • Write each phonogram 5 times as prescribed, not in a rote way.
  • When needed, reinforce the language learned, such as, top line, base line, and points on the circle.
  • Review previously learned phonograms every day. You may choose several rather than all 30, 50 or 70. Do not let much time lapse before reviewing older phonograms. Student do forget. Review is the greatest tool in your arsenal.
  • Play with the phonograms. See Part 2 for ideas.

Teaching the alphabet phonograms first help lay the foundation in letter formation as well as with reading and spelling those sounds. Click to tweet

And Now for the Rest of the Phonograms

(Words that should be spoken by the teacher and student are in bold, and they are also accompanied by the command, “say.”)Flash cards

 

sh: Say: /sh/ used at the beginning of a word (she), at the end of a syllable (fishes), but not at the beginning of any syllable after the first one (nation), except for the ending –ship. * (Do not say, she, fishes, nation)

Now write it.  sh Then say it again, the whole thing, plus the key word caption: she fishes for friendship.

*Students will not understand everything they say for a while, but it is important to establish a point of reference for later.

 

ee : Say: /ē/ double ee always says /ē/.  Now write it.   ee   Now say the whole thing again plus the keyword caption peek.

th: Say:  /th/-/th/ . Now write it th .  Now say: /th/-/th/ three of them.

ay: Say:  /ā/ 2-letter /ā/ that we may use at the end of English words.  Now write it: ay.  Remember:

Now say: /ā/ 2-letter /ā/ that we may use at the end of English words,  play sailboat. *

*Since this is the /ay/, place emphasis on the word “play.”  Make it louder than the word sailboat.

 

flash cards ai: Say: /ā/ 2-letter /ā/ that we may not use at the end of English words. Now write it: ai

Now say:  /ā/ 2-letter /ā/ that we may not use at the end of English words, play sailboat. *

*Since this /ai/, place emphasis on the word “sailboat”.  Make it louder than the word play.

 

ow: Say: /ow/-/ō/ that we may use at the end of English words.  Now write it: ow

Now say: /ow/-/ō/ that we may use at the end of English words, cowboy show.

 

ou:  Say: /ow/-/ō/-/o o/-/ŭ/ that we may not use at the end of English words. Now write it: ou

There is no keyword caption for /ou/. Students should make karate-type hand motions while saying it.

Here are 4 words so that you know how to pronounce the sounds:

/ow/ (sound), /ō/ (soul), /o o/ (youth), /ŭ/ (trouble)

 

aw: Say: /aw/ that we may use at the end of English words.  Now write it: aw

Now say: /aw/ that we may use at the end of English words, auto law.*

*Since this is /aw/, place emphasis on the word “law.” Make it louder than the word “auto.”

 

au: Say: /au/ that we may not use at the end of English words. Now write it: auflash cards

Now say:  /au/ that we may not use at the end of English words, auto law. *

*Since this is /au/, place emphasis on the word “auto”. Make it louder than the word “law.”

 

ew: Say:  /o o/-/ū/ that we may use at the end of English words. Now write it: ew

Now say: /o o/-/ū/ that we may use at the end of English words, brew a few.

 

ui: Say: /o o/-/ū/ that we may not use at the end of English words. Now write it: ui

Now say:  /o o/-/ū/ that we may not use at the end of English words, fruit juice.

 

oy: Say: /oy/ that we may use at the end of English words. Now write it: oy

Now say:  /oy/ that we may use at the end of English words, noisy boy. *

*Since this is /oy/, place emphasis on the word “boy.” Make it louder than the word “noisy.”

 

oi: Say: /oi/ that we may not use at the end of English words. Write it now: oi

Now say: /oi/ that we may not use at the end of English words, noisy boy. *

*Since this is /oi/, place emphasis on the word “noisy.” Make it louder than the word “boy.”

 

flash cards oo: Say: /o o/-/o o/-/ō/. Now write it: oo .  Now say: /o o/-/o o/-/ō/, foolish crook at the door.

 

ch: Say: /ch/-/k/-/sh/, /ch/-/k/-/sh/ said gradually faster,  resembling a train. Now write it: ch

Now say: /ch/-/k/-/sh/, /ch/-/k/-/sh/ said gradually faster three or four times.

 

ng: Say: /ng/ used at the end of a word or syllable (a nasal sound). Now write: ng

Now say: /ng/ used at the end of a word or syllable, sing a long song.

 

ea: Say: /ē/-/ĕ/-/ā/. Now write it: ea  Now say: /ē/-/ĕ/-/ā/, eating bread is great.

 

ar: Say: /ar/ the /ar/ of car. Now write it: ar  Now say: /ar/ the /ar/ of car, car (not a mistake)

 

ck: Say: /k/ 2-letter /k/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says /ă/-/ĕ/-/ĭ/-/ŏ/-/ŭ/ Now write it: ck   Now say it again, the whole thing, adding the keyword caption: prick a pickle.

 

ed: Say: /ed/-/d/-/t/ past tense ending.  Now write it: ed Now say: /ed/-/d/-/t/ past tense ending, spotted, starred, striped.flash cards

 

or: Say:  /or/. Now write it: or   Now say: /or/ form a sword.

 

wh: Say: /wh/ (as if to blow a feather off your palm). Now write it: wh  Now say: /wh/, whisper to whale.

 

oa: Say: /ō/ 2-letter /ō/ that we may not use at the end of English words.  Now write it: oa

Now say:  ō/ 2-letter /ō/ that we may not use at the end of English words, toad on a boat.

 

oe: Say:  /ō/ 2-letter /ō/ that we may use at the end of English words.  Now write it: oe

Now say: /ō/ 2-letter /ō/ that we may use at the end of English words, tiptoe.

 

For the next six phonograms use the following sentence in the presentation of each.  Emphasize the word being highlighted. Students really enjoy this.

Her first nurse works early on her journey.

 

er: Say: /er/ the /er/ of her. Write it: er  Now say: /er/ the /er/ of her (and the sentence emphasizing”her”).

ir: Say: /er/ the /er/ of first. Write it:ir   Now say: /er/ the /er/ of first (and the sentence emphasizing”first”).

 

ur: Say:  /er/ the /er/ of nurse. Write it: ur  Now say: /er/ the /er/ of nurse (and the sentence emphasizing “nurse”).flash cards

 

wor: Say: /er/ the /er/ of works.  Write it: wor   Now say: /er/ the /er/ of works  (and the sentence emphasizing “works”).  The wor = /w/-/or/, often, “w” before “or” makes “or” say /er/.

 

ear: Say: /er/ the /er/ of early. Write it: ear  Now say: /er/ the /er/ of early (and the sentence emphasizing “early”).

 

our: Say:  /er/ the /er/ of journey. Write it: our Now say: /er/ the /er/ of journey (and the sentence emphasizing “journey”).

 

ey: Say: /ā/-/ē/ that we may use at the end of English words. Now write it:  ey Now say:  /ā/-/ē/ that we may use at the end of English words, they have the honey.

 

ei: Say: /ā/-/ē/ that we may not use at the end of English words.  Now write it: ei

Now say: /ā/-/ē/ that we may not use at the end of English words, their leisure.

 

eigh: Say:  /ā/ 4-letter /ā. Now write it: eigh Now say: /ā/ 4-letter /ā, eight freight cars.

 

ie: Say:  /ē/-/ī/. Now write it:  ie   Now say: /ē/-/ī/, piece of pie.*

flash cards *Remember that we say the phonogram sounds in the order of frequency used.  The first sound is used more often than the second sound.  Students will rise to the challenge of learning this one.

 

igh: Say:  /ī/ 3-letter /ī/. Now write it: igh  Now say:  /ī/ 3-letter /ī/, night light.

 

kn: Say: /n/ 2-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a root word.  Now write it:  kn

Now say: /n/ 2-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a root word, knight’s knockout.

 

gn: Say: /n/ 2-letter /n/ used at the beginning and at the end of a root word. Now write it: gn

Now say:  /n/ 2-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of a root word, gnat sign.*

*Be sure to explain vocabulary or ideas as students may not understand.  Ask: What is a gnat?

 

wr: Say: /r/ 2-letter /r/ used only at the beginning of a root word. Now write it:  wr  .

Now say: /r/ 2-letter /r/ used only at the beginning of a root word, don’t write wrong.

 

ph: Say: /f/ 2-letter /f/. Now write it:  ph  .  Now say: /f/ 2-letter /f/, photograph.

 

dge: Say: /j/ 3-letter /j/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says /ă/-/ĕ/-/ĭ/-/ŏ/-/ŭ/. Now write it: dge  .  Now say the whole thing again plus the keyword caption: hodge-podge

 

tch: Say: /ch/ 3-letter /ch/ used only at the end of a root word after a single vowel that says /ă/-/ĕ/-/ĭ/-/ŏ/-/ŭ/. Now write it:  tch  . Now say the whole thing again plus the keyword caption: pitcher.

 

ti: Say:  /sh/ tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable. Now write it: ti Now say:  /sh/ tall-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable, nation.flash cards

 

si: Say:  /sh/-/zh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable.  Now write it:  si  .

Now say: /sh/-/zh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable, mansion excursion.

 

ci: Say:  /sh/ short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable.

Now write it: ci .  Now say: /sh/ short-letter /sh/ used at the beginning of any syllable after the first syllable, special social.

 

ough: Say:  /ō/- /o o/, /uff/-/off/, /aw/-/ow/. *  Now write it: ough .

/ō/ (dough), /o o/ (through), /uff/ (tough), /off/ (trough), /aw/ (sought), /ow/ (bough) Learn in pairs.

 

are here for you to know the pronunciation.  Check with the DVD if you are not sure. The picture on the phonogram card is of someone falling down a hill on skis.  Allow students to be dramatic and imitate the guy falling while saying this phonogram.

 

gu: Say:  /g/ of guilty guy.  Now write it: gu  .  Now say: /g/ of guilty guy, guilty guy. (Not a mistake.)

 

Teaching students the phonograms as a foundation to any reading program is highly recommended and beneficial. It will help your students flourish as readers and spellers. Going beyond the basics of the phonograms and teaching a systematic way to use them is even better.

photo credit: Read Read via photopin (license)

photo credit: Encyclopedia Eden via photopin (license)

photo credit: Grand Matriarch of the Keightley Clan via photopin (license)

photo credit: Latino Read 889 via photopin (license)

photo credit: Mushaboom via photopin (license)

photo credit: Project detail: Writing via photopin (license)

photo credit: UFV Graphic and Digital Design program via photopin (license)

photo credit: 0142 via photopin (license)

Be Sociable, Share!

About Cheyenne Adamson

"All the world’s a stage,” and Cheyenne is a player behind many curtains. As the the President of YesPhonics™ - and its first official student - Cheyenne is guiding his company to its next evolution as an enlightened force in the field of education. As an actor and film maker, Cheyenne has produced three short films under his production company, Grubstake Films. He has acted in numerous productions on stage and in film. Cheyenne plays chess, basketball, skis and takes any chance he can get to hike in the woods. He writes about phonics, politics, health and education and spends his free time reading, making movies, and pursuing inner peace. You can see the latest movie he's in at: missoulamovie.com.

On Facebook? Leave a comment!