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How to Teach Phonograms: Part 2

Explicit phonics

How to Teach the Phonograms Part 2

The phonograms, sound symbol relationships, are the foundational building blocks for spelling and reading.YP_DVD_Slide_2

In part one of this blog we concentrated on what we typically call the “circle letters” and why they are taught together and out of alphabetical order. Please glance through that article if you are seeing Part 2 first.

Remember to practice each phonogram 5 times as prescribed; never in a rote way. This will not be enough for mastery, but it will be enough to move forward in the learning. The phonograms will be reviewed many times in many ways. Review previously learned phonograms every day.

Similar phrasing or dialogue can be found on pages 33 and 34 in the Yes Phonics Express manual.

In addition to learning the alphabet phonograms, your students are also learning how to write. The presentation of the writing is precise because a lot is being established during this time. Students are learning the basics of manuscript writing (printing) and also are learning the basics of the thinking processes throughout this program.

Download part 2 of the phonogram flash cards to begin. You will be teaching part 2 of the phonograms in two ways; 1.) using manuscript writing (they will physically write the letters using dotted lined paper and the Four point circle system seen in examples below), and 2.) presenting the actual flash cards while dictating each phonograms’ sound/s; students will repeat the sounds.

The phonograms, sound symbol relationships, are the foundational building blocks for spelling and reading. Click to tweet

Let’s Continue with the Alphabet Phonograms

b: Say: /b/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin almost at the top line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle around to 3.                                                                                                                

Now say: /b/ bumblebee.                                                    phonograms * Remember: the /b/ is not a circle letter because we make the straight line first.  This is to help prevent reversals and give students ways to think, to write and spell correctly.  Remind students to use the language of: top line, mid-line etc. and the points on the circle.

e: Say: /ě/ē/  (Now write it.) Say:  Begin at 2, go straight across to 1, circle to 4.

Now say :/ě/ē/  help me.phonograms h: Say /h/  (Now write it.) Say: Begin almost at the top line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline.           

Now say: /h/  hug    The h is sounded with air rather than with voice.  Very short, no vowel sound attached to it.

phonograms i: Say: /ĭ/-/ī/-/ē/  (Now write it.) Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to the baseline, lift pencil, dot.

Now say: /ĭ/-/ī/-/ē/   it’s a giant radio.

phonograms j: Say: /j/ (Now write it.) Say: Begin at mid-line, go down below the baseline to the lower 4, circle to 3, lift pencil, dot.

Now say: /j/ jumping jack.phonograms k: Say: /k/     (Now write it.)  Say: Begin almost at the top line, go down to the baseline, lift pencil, begin at the mid-line, slant in to touch the first line, slant out to the baseline.

Now say: /k/ king. * With the /k/ you must lift your pencil but only once.phonograms l: Say: /l/ (Now write it.)  Say: Begin almost at the top line, go down to the baseline.

Now say: /l/ lollipop.phonograms

 

m: Say: /m/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline.

Now say: /m/ mammoth.phonogram n: Say: /n/ (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to the baseline, retrace to 2, circle to 1, go down to the baseline

Now say: /n/ noon. phonogram p: Say: /p/ (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down below the baseline almost to the lower mid-line, retrace to 2, circle to 3.      

Now say: /p/ prick a pickle.phonograms r: Say: /r/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to the base line, retrace to 2, circle to 1.

Now say: /r/  roadrunner. */r/ is not an /er/ sound.  It is /r/ like the sound a dog might make, but very short and staccato.

We have six /er/ sounds spelled with the following multi-letter phonograms: /er/, /ir/, /ur/, /wor/, /ear/, /our/.

The /r/ by itself does not say /er/.

 

phonograms t:  Say: /t/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin almost at the top line, go down to the baseline, lift pencil, cross.

Now say: /t/  teeter totter.phonogram

uSay:  /ŭ/-/ū/-/o o/  (Now write it.) Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to 3, circle to 4, go up to the mid-line, retrace to the baseline.

Now say: /ŭ/-/ū/-/o o/  ducks use output.phonogram v:  Say: /v/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, slant to the baseline, slant up to the mid-line.*

Now say: /v/ valentine. *Alternate dialogue to write /v/: “Middle. Down to the right, up to the right.”phonogram w: Say: /w/  (Now write it.)  Write a double v.*

Now say: /w/ wiggle worm. *Alternate dialogue to write /w/: “Middle. Down to the right up to the right, down to the right, up to the right.”phonogram x: Say: /x/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, slant to the baseline, lift pencil, begin at the mid-line, slant back across the first line to the baseline.

Now say: /x/  x-ray a fox.phonogram y: Say: /y/-/ĭ/-/ī/-/ē/  (Now write it.)  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go down to 3, circle to 4, go up to the mid-line, retrace to 4 and continue down to the lower 4, circle to 3.

Now say: /y/-/ĭ/-/ī/-/ē/ your gypsy* can fly quickly.phonogram The /y/ is made with one motion, without lifting the pencil, so it must be rounded. Capital Y should be the same.Phonograms

The first sound of the y is as a consonant. The other three sounds are as vowels having the same sounds as the phonogram /i/. When we use rules for marking words, the y as a consonant will be treated as the first sound, the other three sounds will be counted as the first, second, and  third sounds of the vowel sounds the y makes. This will be made clear as it comes up in the process.*Define gypsy as a traveler.

z: Say: /z/  (Now write it. )  Say: Begin at the mid-line, go across the mid-line, slant to the baseline, go across the baseline. *Alternate dialogue to write /z/: “From the mid-line go across in the direction we read and write. Slant down to left, and go across in the direction we read and write.”

z Now say: /z/ zebra at the zoo. phonogram Teaching the rest of the phonograms is a bit easier now. All of the letters of the alphabet have been taught. The rest of the phonograms are simply combinations of those letters.

Continue to practice each phonogram 5 times at the first sitting. They will be played with and practiced many times in the future.

Remember to use the DVD for yourself to hear the phonograms if you are not sure how to pronounce them. However, the keyword captions will also help you to know exactly how  Sound-A-Long DVDthey are spoken.

For example: /ă/-/ā/-/ah/  have a ball………means /ă/ as in the word “have”, /ā/ as in the word “a”, and /ah/ as in the word “ball.”  Do not point this out to your student yet.  They will learn how to use the phonograms in a step by step sequential manner.

Continue teaching the multi-letter phonograms. When we use these in words, they will get underlined so that students see them as one sound in a word.  The example in “How to Teach Phonograms, Part 1, was the word “cough.”  Another example is the word “earned”.  This word is made up 6 letters, but only 3 phonograms: /ear/, /n/, and /ed/.

We underline /ear/ because it is a learned multi-letter phonogram that has one sound. We underline the /ed/ because it also has one sound in this word, but we put a 2 above it because it is the 2nd sound of the 3 possible sounds that /ed/ can make. We call this phonogram:

/ed/-/d/-/t/ past tense ending. phonograms

Checklist:

Write each phonogram 5 times as prescribed, not in a rote way.

Review previously learned phonograms every day. For the sake of time, you may choose several rather than all 30, 50 or 70 each day.

Ideas:

Play with the phonograms: Use Phingo. Call out the phonogram and have student write on the Phingo card. Watch for correct writing. Correct reversals as they happen. Remind students of the points on the circle.

Play Phonogram bean bag toss. Place phonograms on the ground. Toss. Say that phonogram and write it on marker board or elsewhere.

Place some phonograms on a table. Ask student to hop, skip, or leap to the table, choose the correct phonogram, say it, then write it on a board or elsewhere.

Have fun with the phonograms!

In Part 3 of this blog we will continue with the multi-letter phonograms. They are taught within the Sequence numbers of the YesPhonics system. You will be told to teach the rest of the phonograms in a particular sequence. Then there will be a certain number of words that will be placed into a spelling notebook, one sound and one syllable at a time. After thinking, spelling, writing, and reading a certain number of words, more phonograms will be taught, etc.

The entire sequence will not be given in the article, only the phonograms. The learning of the multi-letter phonograms will slow down now. They will not look as familiar to students as the “alphabet” phonograms did.

Enjoy your phonogram lessons. They will provide you and especially your students with a lifetime of reading enjoyment.

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About Cheyenne Adamson

"All the world’s a stage,” and Cheyenne is a player behind many curtains. As the the President of YesPhonics™ - and its first official student - Cheyenne is guiding his company to its next evolution as an enlightened force in the field of education. As an actor and film maker, Cheyenne has produced three short films under his production company, Grubstake Films. He has acted in numerous productions on stage and in film. Cheyenne plays chess, basketball, skis and takes any chance he can get to hike in the woods. He writes about phonics, politics, health and education and spends his free time reading, making movies, and pursuing inner peace. You can see the latest movie he's in at: missoulamovie.com.

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